A scientific explanation of aging

1.NMN and NAD+ Basic information

NMN is known as β-Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN), which exists in some fruits, vegetables and poultry meat. It is a natural substance in the human body and can be converted into NAD+, an important coenzyme related to human metabolism in cells. Studies have confirmed that the intracellular NAD+ content will decrease with the increase of age, and exogenous NMN supplementation is believed to enhance the function of human cells.

On the basis of the traditional oral supplement of exogenous NMN, Westwood Biotech has developed the injectable dosage form of NMN&NAD+ through continuous iteration by using artificial intelligence and biosynthetic technology. Compared with the traditional oral method, the injection form has higher bioavailability and better effect.

A scientific explanation of aging
NMN molecular structure formula
A scientific explanation of aging
NAD+ molecular structure formula

2.In vivo action

Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) is a derivative of vitamin B3 (nicotinamide) with a molecular weight of 334.22g/mol. There are two types of differential isomers of NMN: α and β. Only β- NMN was found to be biologically active.

A scientific explanation of aging

According to different age groups and combining the results of human clinical trials, toxicological report analysis and NR studies, it is recommended that the daily intake of NMN over 25 years old is 150mg. The recommended daily intake for people over 40 years is about 300 mg of NMN. People over 60 consume about 600 mg of NMN daily. NMN occurs naturally in a variety of foods, such as 0.25-1.12mg of 100mg of cauliflower and 0- 0.9mg of cabbage per 100g; Avocados and tomatoes contain 0.36-1.6mg and 0.26-0.3mg of NMN per 100g, respectively, while raw beef contains only 0.06-0.42mg of NMN per 100g. To supplement 100mgNMN, you need to consume 6kg of avocados. It is completely unrealistic to supplement the amount of NMN your body needs through food.

A scientific explanation of aging

The primary role of NMN is as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of NAD+ in the human body, and during the biosynthesis of NAD+, NMN is an important substrate for nicotinamide mononucleotide adenosine transferase 1 (NMNAT1) of nuclear origin and nicotinamide mononucleotide adenosine transferase 3 (NMNAT3) of mitochondrial origin. It was found that NAD+ levels decayed with age, leading to changes in metabolism and increased susceptibility to disease; Restoring NAD+ levels in old or diseased animals promotes health and longevity.

A scientific explanation of aging

3.Research History

At present, the United States, Japan and other countries have a variety of NMN supplement products as dietary supplements or health food into the market, and sold to a number of countries and regions, no adverse reactions have been reported after consumption.

In order to study the effect and safety of NMN on human physiology, a number of human clinical trials with NMN as the object are under way.

In 2005, Professor Shinjiro Imai of Washington University in St. Louis initiated the continuous research on NMN.

In 2009, Miao Chaoyu, professor of Shanghai Second Military Medical University, obtained the patent of NMN for the treatment of cerebral stroke.

In 2011, Professor Shinjiro Imai of Washington University in St. Louis and OYC of Japan jointly developed NMN and successfully made a small sample;

In December 2013, Professor David Sinclair of Harvard Medical School published a paper on the reversal of aging by NMN in Cell, and set up Metrobiotech, a company planning to develop new anti-aging drugs by NMN.

In 2016, Keio University in Japan and the University of Washington jointly conducted human clinical trials of NMN to discuss the potential of NMN as a functional food by evaluating metabolic parameters. The trial was conducted in healthy men aged 40-60

years and was divided into two phases. The first phase evaluated the safety of single administration of NMN [8], and the second phase evaluated the safety of long-term administration (8 weeks) of NMN. No adverse reactions or safety issues have been reported.

In 2017, Fumiko Higashikawa et al. from Hiroshima University in Japan conducted clinical trials to study the safety and effects of long-term oral administration of NMN on human health. Designed as a parallel randomized double-blind trial, healthy subjects took oral NMN at doses of 100mg/ day and 200mg/ day for 24 weeks, measured various parameters in serum plasma, and recorded the number and incidence of adverse reactions. No adverse reactions or safety issues were reported.

In addition, the University of Washington School of Pharmacy is conducting a clinical trial on the effects of dietary supplement NMN on female metabolism. Subjects take oral NMN capsules at 250mg/d daily for 8 weeks, and no adverse reactions have been reported.

On March 31, 2020, Japan’s Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare included NMN on the “non-medical list,” which allows its use in food production.

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